© 2019 by Rabbi Zvi Aviner
Genesis Vs Evolution
Class 4: Adam
Now that we’ve established Moses’ credibility about the history of the World, is he also credible about the history of Man?
Let’s pay attention to his words, since his goal is tell us about Man rather than about the Universe.
1: The Scientific Narrative of Man’s Evolution
Science says (according to the History Chanel) that Man appeared on Earth gradually over the last 2 Million years. The growth of Mammals actually began 75 Million years ago, following the meteoric catastrophe that wiped out all the giant creatures of Pangea , including the Dinosaurs. A devastating catastrophe it was, yet it changed the climate in our favor. Small creatures like Mammals could now proliferate and evolve faster than before. First came Large Apes, then Primitive Man like Homo Erectus and Homo Neanderthal (0.7-0.4 Million years ago) than Homo Sapience, “Wise Man,” us (about 0.4 M years ago.)
Why Mammals? What gave mammals the advantage to grow more than other creatures? The scientists debate on that. Some say that Mammals’ ability to stand upright and free their hands gave them the advantage. Others credit some mysterious chemical in the Mammal mother’s milk.. After all, MILK is what distinguishes Mammals by definition. Others say that the protection that Mammals give their offspring is what has promoted their growth. Whereas Crocodiles eat their babies to prevent competition, Mammals nourish their babies, to promote their proliferation.
As Man evolved, Science says, so did his Brain. Our mind after all is what makes us Homo Sapience, Wise Man. Our mind endows us with abstract thinking, language, imagination and fascination. You can see this fascinations in Cave Man’s painting of hunting scenes on his cave’s walls. Our mind allows us to invent tools and comprehend the way the Universe works.
But at the same time, Science also believes that our mind does not set us essentially apart from other creatures. We simply won the race. Following the demise of the Dinosaurs, Science says, a race began between several social creatures – like ants, spiders and bees- to develop smart colonies and societies. It is as if the Universe “demands the presence of an intelligent creature in it.” Given more time, like several more million years, other social creatures besides Man may catch up and develop their own I-Phones, computers and Space Ships. Man won the race simply by the climate changes in our favor.
But besides our Wise Brain, Science points also on other factors that have made Man so successful. Our Self Consciousnesses and our sense of Individuality – not found in ants or bees – have also set s apart. Our sense for Art and Beauty and Music has also enriched our lives and set us apart. Our developed emotional being has made us different. Man is “blessed,” for example, with Sex Drive that is stronger than seen in other creatures in Nature. It drives us all year long and dominates our life, as Prof Sigmund Freud says. Other scholars point on our Ego and Drive for Power as a strong force in our psyche that pushes us forwards to achieve things (Prof Carl Jung). .
Science sees Man at the apex of the Evolution. One can see the evidenced for that in the way that every human embryo develops in his mother’s womb. We all start as a single cell and then divide and grow into a multi-cellular organism,sometimes resembling fish or birds or lizards. We repeat in he womb the entire evolution (“Onto-Genesis repeats the Philo-Genesis.”)
Having summarized the Scientific view of Man’s evolution and make up, what does Moses say about it? Dos he concur with Science? Does he add information that Science would never say?
Let’s pay attention to Moses, since we have found him credible when it comes to Genesis and the history of the world
MOSES’S ACCOUNT OF ADAM’S CREATION
Compared to our Scientific account
1: The text in Genesis about creating Adam
AS THE SIXTH DAY DAWNED
”And GOD (ELKIM) said Let the Earth bring forth living creatures to their kinds
Cattle, Creeping things and Beasts of the Earth to their kinds, and it was so
THE MIDDAY JUDGMENT OF THE SIXTH DAY: And GOD (ELKM) saw that it was good.
ANNOUNCING THE PLAN TO CREATE ADAM
“And GOD (ELKM) said: LET US MAKE AN ADAM IN OUR FORM AND OUR IMAGE
“And GOD (ELKM) created The Adam in His Image, in the Image of GOD (ELKM) He created him, male and female He created them.
And GOD (ELKM) blessed them and said to them
Be fruitful and multiply, filled the Earth and conquer it, rule over the Fish…Birds…and all the Beasts…
THE SIXTH DAY’S FINAL JUDGMENT
And GOD (ELKM) saw EVERYTHING that HE had DONE
And behold, it was VERY GOOD
And there was evening, and there was morning, the SIXTH DAY” (was over.)
…………………THE SABBATH DAY BEGINS………………………..
“And the Heavens and the Earth were FINISHED
And GOD (ELKM) FINISHED all the Work that He has done,
And He ABSTAINED on the SEVENTH DAY from all the work that He had done
And GOD (ELKM) blessed the Seventh Day and He sanctified it….
For in it He ABSTAINED from all His work that GOD (ELKM) had created, to do.” (Genesis 1-31; 2 1-3)
On the surface, Moses’s Genesis differs from the Scientific story. The world, he seems to be saying, was created only 5000 years ago and in just one week. Science, in contrast, says that the Universe is 13.7 Billion years old.
But the truth is that Moses does not mention 5000 years. This number has been projected retrospectively from Cain and Able. This calculation does not pertain to the story of Genesis in Chapters One.
Indeed, we’ve already learned that Genesis Chapter One described the World as a Six Floors BUILDING, each Floor lasting 2.1 Billions years on the average. Accordingly, the world is 6×2.1 B =12.6 By ears, quite lose to the 13 Billion years caclculated by Science.
Man, according to this narrative, is living in the Sixth Day or Floor, as the last tenant in the BUILDING, with millions of years behind him and millions of years ahead of him .
it is conceivable therefore that Man has grown in stages – from primordial Mammals to Apes to Primitive Man then to Modern Man. This process may have taken many years, compatible with Science.
Remember, all we need to show here that Moses’s story CAN match our Science, something one can’t do with any of the myths about CREATION told in his time. .
Moses Account of Making Adam
Does Moses concur with Science about the birth of Man ? Does he agree with Science about Man’s features that set us apart from the animals?
So here is how Moses describes the birth of Adam. GOD (ELKM) made Adam, he says, at a certain time, in a certain way, to answer a specific need.
Certain time: Adam is made as the last tenant in the six Floors BUILDING of Nature. And like all other creatures before him, Adam’s ‘position’ dictates his trial and judgment.
On all previous Days, the BUILDER, GOD (ELKM,) judged the Day at its end, when the Day was turning into the next Day. At that junction He decided whether the passing Day was good and ready to support the next coming Day. If the verdict was good, the Day was allowed to enter the next one. If the verdict was not good, the creatures were eliminated with no mercy. They could not support the coming Floor and therefore were eliminated. GOD (ELKM) gives life and He can take life away as His discretion, in absolute justice that knows no mercy,
daon the passing Day. If it was good meaning could support the next Floor or the next Day, He allowed it to continue living. The part of every Day that He deemed not good anymore He eliminated there and then.
Thus at the end of the 3rd Day GOD (ELKM) passed a judgment on the passing Day and said that it was good. The items he deemed not good anymore- the vegetation on the First Super Continent- He eliminated, whereas the Vegetation in the water he allowed to keep on living. They were good since they supported the Mobile Life appearing next in the water.
And at the end of the 4th Day GOD (ELKM) judged again the passing Day. Those items that were not good anymore He eliminated. A tremendous volcanic activity never to be seen again in such a magnitude, erupted in the oceans’ bed and melted the Ice above. Some Ice was left at the poles to keep the temperature right.
And at the end of the 5th Day GOD (ELKM) judged again the passing Day and said that it was good. The creatures he found not good anymore , he eliminated. A series of fiery explosion hit our planet and wiped out the enormous Fish, Birds and Crocodiles. Those who could support the next Day- the Sixth- were allowed to remain on board.
Now in the same token, at the end of our Sixth Day, after the birth of Adam, GOD ELKM) would judge again, but this time the entire project, the whole Six Floors BUILDING. . .
As it is said
“GOD (ELKM) saw everything that he has done
And behold it was (is) Very Good” (Genesis 1: 3)
Moreover,as you see in the verse, this time he would not be happy anymore with a mere good verdict. With the advent of Adam, He would be happy only with a Very Good verdict. .
And the stakes are higher. Whereas in the past, a ‘bad verdict’ meant the elimination of one passing Day, such a bad verdict at the End of the Sixth Days would bring the elimination of the entire BUILDING, the whole world.
You can see that in the verse.
The following is based on the Talmud, the services held in the Holy Temple of Jerusalem, commentaries and liturgy.
The last stage of CREATION prior to making Adam
As the Sixth Day downed, Moses says, GOD (ELKM) continued to create like any Day before. Still acting as a Tyrant, ruling the world Awesomely Alone, He issued orders and creatures were created, consulting no one, asking no one’s permission. Thus He said
“Let the Earth bring forth living creatures to their kinds,
Cattle-like and Crawling Creatures and the Beast of Earth to its kinds
And so it was” (Genesis 1: 24)
Then, as the Sixth Day was closing, GOD (ELKM) paused and passed an early Judgment on everything He had created earlier on that Day. This was unusual, since on almost all previous Days (besides the 2nd) He had judged a Day only at the end of it, as it turned to the next Day. And as a rule, an early midday Judgment is indicative for some urgency or a problem facing the CREATOR. It meant that Earth stood on a crossroad and a decision had to be made by the BUILDER. . Such an early, midday judgment was conducted on the THIRD Day, prior to seeding life on Earth. Earth stood then on a crossroad- would it see life on it, or not? (The details of that crucial trial is given Chapter 2 in the story of Eden) Luckily for us, GOD (ELKM) said that “it was good” and therefore planted the seed of life on the Dry Land (Of Roodenia.) . .
Now again,Moses says, while the Sixth Day was still in progress, GOD (ELKM) conducted another midday trial. Earth stood again on a crossroad: would it progress towards the End of the Sixth Day and enter the Sabbath?
Note that the Sabbath here is not our human Sabbath of our week. The “Sabbath” here stands for the next Day of CREATION. It is called “The Sabbath To Come” or “The Eternal Sabbath.” It is not just another Floor on top of the Sixth, but rather a new realty that would wrap the entire BUILDING, the whole Universe. When the Eternal Sabbath arrives, the world would undergo a major change. GOD (ELKM,) will “Finish” His Work as a BUILDER, “Finish” His work as a JUDGE, and “Abstain” from more work and Judgment (the Hebrew “Shabbath” does not mean ‘rested’ but rather ‘he abstained from.’) When the “Eternal Sabbath” arrives, the Holiness of the LORD will descend on the Universe and shower on it unconditional Love, Joy and Holiness.
Our discussion at this point focuses not on the Sabbath, but rather on the creation of Man. Does Moses concur with Science about Adam, the same way he concurs about the Six Days? And if yes, who told him the story?
Note that Moses instituted our weekly Sabbath only to commemorate Genesis. He thinks that we need to remember Genesis and the Sabbath al our lives.
What was the urgency in conducting a midday judgment on the Sixth Day before it was over?
The urgency was, tradition says, that the All Mighty JUDGE GOD (ELKM)) saw that as such, the world was not ready to enter the next Day, the Sabbath. Something was drastically missing.
What was the problem?
The problem was that all the creatures that He had created so far could given Him only a good feeling. Whereas GOD (ELKM) would not enter the Sabbath – with our Universe- unless He has felt Very Good about it.
You can see that clearly in the verses. A the end of the Sixth Day Moses says –
At the End of the Sixth Day, the End of Time, GOD (ELKM) would conduct a comprehensive judgment on “everything He had done” – the entire Universe. On all previous Days He had judged only the one, passing Day; whereas at the End of the Sitxh Day He would pass a judgement on the the entire Universe, from the Beginning till the last point of time.
And moreover, as you see, whereas in the past He was pleased with a “good: verdict, at the End of the Sixth Day’s trial He would be satisfied only with a “Very Good” verdict.. In other words, GOD (ELKM) would not enter the Sabbath Day of CREATION uunless He has felt Very Good about the entire CREATION!
Who in the world could make GOD (ELKM) feel Very Good about the entire CREATION? and how, exactly?
The outcome of the final judgment
The urgency was doubled by the fact that the outcome of the End of Days Trial would be crucial. The stakes would be high. GOD (ELKM) would find CREATION to be either very good or very bad, as it is said
“And the Heavens and the earth were finished…
And GOD (ELKM) finished all the work that He had done .
The verse hints on two possible outcomes-
- If GOD (ELKM) would find CREATION Very Good, He would “finish” or end His work, and enter the Sabbath.
- If GOD (ELKM) would find CREATION “Not Very Good” or only Good, He’d “:finish” or terminate it to nothingness, as He had done to numerous other Universes before! (Rashi)
So as the midday judgment was held, the watching Angels worried – Who in the word would fulfill the task? Who would make GOD (ELKM) feel “Very Good” about His entire work, the entire CREATION?
The warieid Angels relaxed seeing the heard GOD (ELKM) saying that” is was good.” (Genesis 1: 25). On one hand, the “good” verdict implied that some creatures that were deemed “not good anymore” were eliminated, among then the Dinosaurs. These creatures could not support the rest of the Day as it moves to the Sabbath. Those creatures that were deemed “good” were allowed to continue living and adapt to the rest of the Day.
But who would make GOD (ELKM) feel Very Good? The Angels wandered, since none of the living creatures so far could do that!
How surprised the Angles were when they heard GOD (ELKM) announcing with joyous tone, speaking in plural voice, as if to no one in particular-
“Let Us Make Adam in Our Form and Our Image”
A KING Who Consults
That was a big change in the way GOD (ELKM) rules the world. Instead of commanding “Let there be an Adam” He sounded as if Consulting someones to make Adam. He had “stepped down” form His High Pedestal as a Supreme Judge Who Rules Alone, to become a Modest King Who Consults.
The Angles understood that GOD (ELKM) was planning to make Adam. But with whom did He Consult?
“Are speaking to us?” The Angels wondered.
“Yes,” GOD (ELKM) said, “do you agree that I shall make an Adam?”
“Why do you consult us? Are we not your faithful messengers, who execute your commands with no discretion?” They wondered. Indeed, the Hebrew word for Angel,” mal-aach” means a messenger, even a human one.
“I consult you nevertheless, my Angels, to teach Adam modesty; that He should emulate me, and that the superior should always consult the inferior before deciding,” GOD (ELKM) said (Rashi)
“Are you not aware that by speaking in plural voice you’ve opened the door for idolaters to think that have more than One CREATOR- You? ” The Angels asked (Rashi)
“I take the risk and speak in plural,” GOD said, “Since teaching Adam modesty is paramount”
“Why Modesty first?” The Angels asked. .
“Since I want Adam to rule his habitat, Earth (Genesis 1:.) I’d plant in him a strong Self Consciousness (Ego) to push him forwards to acheieve his goals. He’d therefore be needed to be taught modesty,” GOD said.
“So don’t make him! His strong Self would make him erogant, and he might rebel against you,and you! Chances are that you would never feel Very Good about him” The Angles said dryly.
“In that case, I shall make him smarter” GOD ELKM said.
2. GOD ( ELKM) consulted His Wisdom and made Adam
Still in the stage of planning Adam,, GOD (ELKM) built a dummy of Adam from the ground. He built it layer by layer, by a series of consultations, while the Angels were watching.
Now He turned to His Own Wisdom by Which He had created the World (RaMBaN) and said –
Let us Make An Adam, In Our Form and Our Image.
This Wisdom is hinted int he first verse that says
“In the Beginning (The Head of the Events)
GOD (ELKM) created the Heavens and the Earth.” (Genesis 1:1)
GOD (ELKM) Looked “backwards” from the Sixth Day to the Beginning, consulted the “Head of the Events” or the Wisdom in His Head and made A layer in Adam. .
Adm would therefore be blessed with a mind that can unravel all the mysteries of the Universe. Adam would be a Homo Sapience, as Science says.
“Shall I make such an Adam?” GOD (ELKM) consulted the Angles,”this Adam could rule my world,,,”.
“But he may use his Wisdom and Science to destroy the world, rather than build it. He would feel an alian here and would be unable to identify with the world and rule over it as a “king who consults.” He would certainly fail your harsh scrutiny and would nver make you feel Very Good, So don’t make him!” The Angles said.
“I shall therefore make him a part of the Universe,” GOD (ELKM) said.
3. GOD (ELKM) Consulted the Six Days and made Adam
GOD (ELKM) then turned to the Six Days mentioned earlier in the Chapter and said
Let Us Make an Adam in Our Form and Our Image.”
He then consulted each Day, like a Builder consulting His Plan, and made successive layers in Adam. Thus-
Consulting the First Day, He built a layer in Adam made of Light and Matter, stuff that galaxies and stars are made of.
Consulting the Second Day, He built another layer in Adam, made of Water. No wonder our bodies consists mainly of water
Consulting the Third Day, He built a layer in Adam resembling Vegetation. Our bodies has blood vessels brunching like a tree and our eyes perform photosynthesis to see.
Consulting the Fourth Day He built it our bodies sensitive to the movement of the Luminaries, of the changes between days and night, and our nervous system capable of switching between alertness to sleep.
Consulting the Fifth Day, He Built another layer in our bodies resembling Fish, Birds and Crocodiles. .
Consulting the Sixth Day, s He built other layers in our bodies that resemble Cattle, Beasts and Crawling creatures. You can see that in our bodies developing in the wombs.
By this, GOD (ELKM) made Adam a summary of everything created before him. As Science is saying, Adam is at the apex of the Evolution. Man is therefore not an alien in this world. Man can identify with all previous creatures because he is made out of these creatures. Moreover, Man may serve as a legitimate ‘king’ over his habitat, since, as Moses says, a ruler who consults his subject should come from among his subjects to understand their wishes!
And for a moment, the Angles thought that this dummy of Adam was ready to become a live and make GOD (ELKM) feel Very Good. But seeing that His Sword remained lifted on the entire CREATION with a threat, they understood that this was not so, that Adam was still missing an important gradient. What could it be?
3. He Consulted the “Spirit of ELKM”
and made Adam
As the Angles continued to watch in wonder, GOD (ELKM) turned to another entity mentioned early in the chapter- namely “the Spirit of ELKM” that “hovered over the water.”
Moses, in the Book of Exodus, explains that “Spirit of GOD (ELKM)” refers to Art forms as it is said
And the LORD (YHVH) called in the name of Bezalel the son of Uri the son of Hur of the tribe of Judah
And he filled him with the Spirit of GOD (ELKM)
of Wisdom, Insight and Knowledge
And with every craft, to wave designs, to work with gold, silver and copper
And stone cutting for setting, and wood crafting, to perform every craft of design” (Exodus 35: 30-33)
GOD ELKM turned to His Spirit and said in plural-
Let Us Make an Adam in Our Form and Our Image
He then Consulted His Art like a BUILDER Who Consults His Plan, and made another layer in Adam. Henceforth Art would enrich our lives like no other talent.
And for a moment, the Angles thought that this dummy of Adam was advanced enough over previous creatures to make GOD ELKM feel Very Good about him and the entire CREATION. But alas! Seeing that GOD ELKM Mighty sword was still uplifted on CREATION with a threat, they knew that this wasn’t so, and that some other important ingredient was till missing in the Adam in the ground. What could that be?
4. GOD (ELKM) consulted His Self Consciousness
and made Adam
GOD ELKM then turned to His Own Self Consciousness and Free Will and said –
“Let Us me and you) make an Adam in our Form and Our Image.”
Like a BUILDER Who Consults his Plan, GOD ELKM Consulted His Self and Free Will and planted it as a new layer in the dummy of Adam.
Adam is therefore blessed with a powerful self-Consciousness and a Free Will and a strong, individual Ego.
So strong Adam’s ego is, that it might take him arrogant. This is why GOD ELKM preferred to start making Adam while teaching him modesty.
Here again Moses concurs with Science about us having a strong self consciousness and a free will. Moses negates, however, those religions that preach otherwise- that our self is a mirage, or that our behavior is pre -determined.
Would this gift to Adam be enough to make him Very Good in GOD’s eyes? The Angles might have thought so, but seeing that His Sword remained lifted so high on the entire CREATION, they knew that something was still missing in Adam, something that would drive him forwards to achieve things. What could these drives be?
5, 6 GOD (ELKM) consulted the “Drive to Procreate” and “Rule Over”
And made Adam
Having exhausted items mentioned in the Chapter before Adam, GOD (ELKM) turned to items mentioned ahead of him in the Chapter, and said
LET US MAKE AN ADAM IN OUR FORM AND OUR IMAGE
Then it is said –
And ELKM created the Adam in His Image, in the Image of ELKM He created him,
Male and female He created them. And ELKM blessed them and said to them
Be fruitful and multiply, filled the Earth and conquer it,
and rule over the Fish…Birds…and all the Beasts…”
The verse mentions two blessing given ahead of Adam:
(1) Be fruitful and multiply
(2) Rule over
Thus GOD (ELKM) turned to “Be fruitful and multiply” – meaning the Drive to Procreate, Sex Drive, and said to it:
“Let Us make an Adam in Our Form and Our Image.”
He Consulted the Sex Drive like a BUILDER Who Consults his plan, and made it as a layer in Adam. Since it was a blessing, GOD ELKM made it stronger in Adam than in other creatures of Nature.
Henceforth the Sex Drive would propel Adam forwards like no other Drive, as Prof. Sigmund Freud would agree.
Next, GOD (ELKM) turned to the Drive to Rule Over and said to it:
“Let us, me and you, make an Adam in our Form and our Image.”
He “Consulted” the Drive For Power and planted it as a layer in Adam. Henceforth it would propel Adam forwards like the Sex Drive.
Moreover, since GOD planted it ahead of our Sex Drive, it would be the strongest, as Prof. Carl Jung would agree.
Note that in Nature too, those two Drives- the Sex Drive and the Drive for Power – are also intertwined. You see that in males competing for the females. Only that in Adam these Drive are magnified manifolds to move us forwards.
So far, Moses concurs with Science about Man.
- Man is at the apex of the Evolution,
- Man possesses a smart mind, he is a homo sapience
- Man possesses an artistic mind that enriches our lives
- Man possesses a strong Self Consciousness and a Free Will
- Man possesses a strong Sex Drive that pulls us forwards
- Man possesses a strong Drive for Power that propels us forwards
For Science, these talents are enough to distinguish Mankind. For Moses, they are important yet not enough to make us not just good but rather Very Good in GOD ELKM eyes.
What is still missing in Adam?