Copy Right 2022

Rabbi Dr Zvi Aviner





as a day of







In this class we’ll touch the following themes of Rosh Hashanah holiday:


  • The End of Time’s comprehensive Judgement of the entire world
  • RH as the annual comprehensive Judgement of the entire world
  • RH as the birthday of the world
  • RH as the birthday of Adam
  • RH as the end of IDOLATRY in the world
  • RH as a day of the Kingship of HaSheM
  • RH as a day we refer to G-d as Our Father, Our King
  • RH as a day we blow ram horns, and silver trumpets
  • RH as a day of three themes: Kingship, Remembrances, Ram Horn Voices


Our purpose is that every Noahide become familiar with these topics

And can understand our prayer book for Rosh Hashanah.





Let’s start with Sefat Emeth’s statement, that in Rosh Hashanah (RH)

Mankind corrects Adam’s primordial sin in Eden.

How did he come to that conclusion? So, first let’s ask:




If RH is the Jewish New Year,

what exactly is the year cycle?



We ask that question, since the Torah uses two types of yearly cycles:


  1. The year cycle starting with the Exodus, where Passover falls in the first month – Nissan, at spring time.
  2. The year that starts six months earlier, on the month of Tishre, and is related to the story of CREATION. This cycle is used to count the Sabbatical years and the Jubilees.


Rosh Hashanah (RH) then is the New Year in the cycle related to CREATION.

Thus, in the same way that Passover is the celebration of the Exodus,

RH is the celebration of the story of CREATION as told in Genesis chapter one

and in the story of Eden.  It is the annual birthday of the World and Adam.


Let’s note that Adam was born on the Sixth Day of CREATION.  Hence ‘conceptually’ there is a “gap” of six Days.  But since a Day in the story of CREATION is an era, and since we live today on the Sixth era, RH is a celebration of both – CREATION and Adam.

The point is that RH is a celebration of EVERYTHING WRITTEN IN THE STORY OF GENESIS.




Moreover, while Passover and all the biblically ordained holidays pertain only to Israel,

RH is uniquely related to Adam, or Mankind.


Hence, all peoples should be familiar with this awesome holiday and understand its themes which are based on the Bible. S



Unlike any other birthday or New Years in the world, RH is celebrated also as  a day of Universal Judgment. From where does this notion come?


Indeed, you see that theme of Judgment repeated in our prayer book for  the day.

For instance: flowing the blow of the Shofar (horn) the congregation chants:


“Today is the birthday of the world,

On this day He (the CREATOR) calls all the created beings

of the world to stand in judgment.


We recall here that RH is the birthday of the world and, at the same time,

a day of universal Judgment, as G-d calls all the creatures to stand in judgm








The prayer continues:


“And whether we are regarded as (your) children, or as your subjects,

If as a children have mercy upon us as a father has mercy on his children.

 if as your subjects, our eyes are turned to you (as our king)

until You will be gracious to us and bring forth our verdicts as light


Here we mention that Man too stands today on judgment, it two ways:

Either as G-d’s Children, or as G-d’s subjects.


Thus, G-d sits in judgment on RH, either as Our Father, or as Our King,

In short: as “Our Father, Our King” – Avineu Malkeinu, a title reserved to G-d

ONLY ON RH AND YOM KIPPUR. We’ll see the importance of that title shortly.



So, what is the base for seeing  RH as both – a birthday and a day of judgment?




The Midrash says that on RH, G-d ascends on His Throne of JUDGMENT

then moves to sit on the Throne of MERCY.


That vision comes from Genesis chapter One, where at the Beginning of the chapter

it says that ELKM the JUDGE created the world for JUDGMENT,

then at the end of the chapter it shows the MERCIFUL Attribute YHVH first as an Acronym;

then in the story of Eden She appears as YHVH ELKM, side by side with ELKM.




Beginning.                                                  Adam

ELKM                                                               YH/VH





So, if RH is a celebration oof the story of Genesis, then it is a day  

a that begins with JUDGMENT then ends with MERCY.



This is shown in Genesis chapter one. Adam is born, of course, on the Sixth Day

of CREATION before the Sabbath.



Earlier, at the end of each Day of CREATION (besides the 2nd) ELKM judged

the passing Day, that He had just created, seeing whether or not it was good.


The creatures or the Day of CREATION whom ELKM deemed ‘not good anymore’

He eliminated, with NO MERCY, whereas those whom He deemed ‘good’ were allowed

to enter the next Day.

This way ELKM built and advanced Nature Day by Day, and He deemed it good.


Then, on the Sixth Day before the Sabbath, ELKM created Adam.

Adam too has to withstand ‘the end of his day’s judgment,’ like all other creatures before.

Thus, at the End of the Sixth Day, our Day, (we live on the Sixth Day) ELKM will judge Adam.


And like all creatures before him,

If Adam. wins, he would enter the next Day, which happened to be the Sabbath.

If he fails the judgment, he would be eliminated like all other creatures before.


But there is one difference between the previous judgments and Adam judgment.

The Torah says, at the end of the Sixth Day, that:


“And ELKM saw everything that He had done

and behold it was very good.”


So, at the end of our Day, the so-called End of Times,

ELKM would JUDGE not only the Sixth Day, but rather

the entire Six Floors Building, the entire Universe.


Moreover, unlike before, when ELKM was pleased by a verdict of ‘Good,’

Now, He would be satisfied only if the world is “Very Good.”



0———-1—–2—–3—–4—–5——-6—— —7-Sabbath—

Beginning.                                                  Adam


ELKM                                                                  YH/VH





The Question is: Who could elevate the Universe from being Good to Very Good?

The answer is given in the text.  Just before creating Adam, on the Sixth Day,

ELKM passed a judgment and said like before, that it was Good.


Then after creating Adam, He seeks a Very Good verdict.

Hence only Adam can make the difference, elevating CREATION from ‘Good’ to ‘Very Good’


The question is: How would Adam achieve that Goal?

Would ELKM help him?   



The surprised answer is no, since ELKM would make Adam ‘good’ at best.

Says Rashi at the beginning of Genesis chapter one:


“At the Beginning, the Infinite CREATOR had in mind to create the world only by the Attribute of Judgment, Din, ELKM,

but seeing that Adam would not withstand  ELKM’S  harsh judgment,

He participated the Attribute of Mercy (in the Heavenly Court.) “


Thus, the advent of MERCY in the Heavenly Court (HC) would give Adam protection:


First, YHVH would act in our defense.


Secondly, Her advent would offer Adam a chance to repent, ask forgiveness and be pardoned, starting his journey all over again, something he wouldn’t be able to do under the rule

of ELKM alone.


Thirdly, by emulating YHVH and her values – MERCY, COMPASSION, FORGIVENESS and HOLINESS – Adam would improve his stance before the Court.


The new HC that actually created Adam, is therefore not ELKM alone,

But rather “YHVH and ELKM” Court, which is called “the King of the Universe.

It is the Court that governs our lives today as we move in history towards the Sabbath.


Thus, only under “YHVH and ELKM” Court, compared to the original ELKM’s Court,

Adam has a better chance is to improve himself and become Very Good,

not only in ELKM’s eyes but rather in YHVH and ELKM’s eyes.


So, while the advent of MERCY in the Court does protect ADAM, acting in our ‘defense’,

It does also increase our liability. For Adam is judged by the two Attributes:

By ELKM, who judges whether or not we’ve abided by His Laws

By YHVH< who assesses whether or not we’ve incorporated Her values into our hearts and deeds.


Being deemed Very Good by the YHVH – ELKM’s Court, means we’ve won in the eyes of the two Attributes, each one assessing or judging us according to its values.


At any case, under Y-E Court we’ve better chance to elevate ourselves and be Very Good, so that we’ve become Very Good AND SEE THE NEXT DAY.




A hint: why is the YHVH and ELKM Court called The King?


1: For in the Ten Commandments G-d reveals Himself as

  • I Am
  • YHVH your ELKM
  • Who took you out of Egypt Land.

The first line presents G-d’s Essence,

The second line His Attributes,

The third line His Deeds in the World, His Kingship.

Hence YHVH and ELKM is the KING.


2: Another explanation: The Court of YHVH and ELKM presents the Attributes

As they ‘talk’ to each other, or consult each other about a case.

“To consult,” nimlach, is the source of melech, king.  Even in the ancient Canaanite language.


In other words: Who is a king? A ruler who consults his councilors or his subjects,  a democratic, benevolent king.  A tyrant who consults no one is a moshel, (says the Vilna Gaon).

Hence, the HC where Y and E consult each other is ‘a king.’



Hence, while at the Beginning, when ELKM intended to create the Universe alone,

the verdict Very Good was in His eyes alone,

now with the Advent of YHVH in the HC, sitting as Y-E Court, the End of Days  Judgment   is

by “YHVH and ELKM.”

This makes sense.  Since the Sabbath is a Day where YHVH reigns “alone” while ELKM abstains. In order to enter the Sabbath, then, Adam must find face in YHVH’s eyes.


We say Adam, since only he can improve himself and be Very Good

By incorporating YHVH’s values.  No other creature can do that. They can become “good’ at best, and they have no stance before YHVH.



As we’ve just said,

If Adam has become Very Good, he would be eligible to enter the next Day,

the eternal Sabbath. (Which is called Khalah, bride.)

If Adam fails, he would get the verdict Khalah! Annihilation!

(A hint for that is also in the Hebrew verse.)



But the HC of YHVH and ELKM d would not wait for the End of Times,

to pass its Judgment on Adam and the world.


Once a year, on the anniversary of CREATION – the RH –

The Court ascends on the Throne of Judgment and judge

the entire CREATION, including Adam


You see that notion mentioned repeatedly in the RH prayer book.

For instance, one of the most moving moments of the day,

is when the congregation recites the following prayer


“Let us proclaim the mighty holiness of the day

For it is awe-inspiring and fearsome, thereon Your Kingship is exalted

Your throne is established with loving-kindness (Mercy)

And you are seated on it in truth. “


The prayer refers to the Throne of Mercy,

and the Throne of Truth which is the Throne of ELKM.


The prayer continues:


“It is true that you are the Judge, the one who presents evidence,

 the knower and the witness, who records and seals,

who counts and reckons, and you remember

all things that are forgotten”



G-d needs no help.

He is the Judge, the witness, and the wone who knows what happened.


You open the Book of Remembrance and it is read itself,

And every man’s signature is in it. “


The prayer refers here to the legendary three Books of life that are open before the HC,

  1. In one the righteous are prescribed for life,
  2. I n the second the wicked ones are prescribed to death
  3. in the third one those who are neither righteous nor wicked are given ten more days to repent and improve themselves,


“The great Shofar is sounded, and a still soft voice is heard

The Angels tremble, fear and dread seizes them,

And they exclaim: the Day of Judgment is here!


“All created beings pass before You one by one,

Like a flock of sheep.  And as a shepherd examines his flock,

Making his sheep pass under his staff,


“So do you cause to pass before you every living soul,

 and you count reckons and are mindful of them,

 you allocate the fixed portion for the needs of

all your creatures and inscribe the verdict of their judgment


 It continues:

“On Rosh Hashanah they are inscribed

and on the fast day of Yom Kippur, they are sealed

  • How many shall pass away, and how many shall be born
  • Who shall live and who shall die
  • Who shall live out his allotted time and who shall depart before his time
  • Who shall perish by water and who by the fire
  • Who by the sword and who by the wild beast
  • Who by the hunger and who by thirst
  • Who by earthquake and who by pestilence
  • Who by strangulation and who by lapidation
  • Who shall be at rest and who shall wander
  • Who shall be tranquil and who shall be harassed
  • Who shall enjoy well-being and who shall suffer tribulations
  • Who shall be poor and who shall be rich
  • Who shall be humbled and who shall be exalted




The Sefat Emeth quotes the Midrash that says that G-d, in one glance,

judges Mankind and the world.  It seems contradictory to the prayer we’ve just read

that says that G-d judges each individual in nature, including Adam.


But in fact,  he SE explains,  judging Adam is tantamount to judging all creatures. Why?

SE explains:  You see that in the story of Eden.


When G-d brought all the animals before Adam to see what name he would give them,

Adam was able to name them appropriately, to give them the same name that G-d had intended. It means, says SE, that Adam could understand and identify himself with all the living creatures, since he was made as summary of them all.


We too have learned that when ELKM created Adam

He consulted the Six Days and made Adam accordingly.

Adam is built layer by layer from everything preceding him,

a fact supported by science since every human embryo passes

in the uterus through the entire Evolution,

beginning with one cell and ending with a human being.


No wonder then, that the Torah regards Adam as equivalent to the entire world.

Judging Adam in one glance, is the same as judging the Universe in one glance




Now the SE asks: When the Midrash says that   on RH The Heavenly Court ascends,

where exactly does it ascend?


For instance, the psalm we recite before blowing the Shofar  says:


“A psalm by the sons of korach: All the nations clap hands, clap hands,

blow (the trumpets) to ELKM with a sound of jubilation

for YHVH is most high, awesome, a great King over all the Earth

ELKM has ascended by the trumpets, YHVH by the voice of the horn…”

ELKM has reigned over nations, ELKM has set on His Holy Throne…”



Some background.  By the Torah’s command, the priests in the Holy Temple

blew on RH two silver trumpets, and one horn in between. What for?

The psalm says that explicitly:


  1. the Silver Trumpets were blown for ELKM, as He ascends on His Throne of Judgment,
  2. and the Ram Horn was blown for YHVH, as She ascends on her Throne of MERCY.


Says the SE:

This tells us where the HC ascends to on RH

All year long the HC of YHVH and of ELKM rules the world,

each attribute judging us separately, from its aspects, then they come to One Verdict.


Like Noah, who found face in YHVH’s eyes

and was found righteous in ELKM’s eyes.



But on RH, says the SE, the HC ascends back to the way it ruled Eden, before the Sin,

as YHVH ELKM – the two Attributes closer to each other like two parents forming their child Adam in Love.


At that stage before the sin, Adam and his wife were pure and innocent,

(With only one Commandment to observe: Not to eat from the Tree.

Transgressing that one Commandment would be tantamount to committing DOLATRY.)


That Eden’s Court, of YHVH ELKM, says SE, is more loving, more open to accept our repentance than the HC on Earth.


Thus, on RH when the HC “ascends” back to sit as Eden’s Court,

we are offered a short opportunity to approach it with repentance

knowing that the Court would be more Loving and Attentive to our prayers,

as a Parent to a child, or as a loving, benevolent king to his subject

hence the notion that  on RH G-d is Our Father, Our King. Avinu Malkeinu.


For instance: In a prayer recited between RH and Yom Kippur we say:


Our Father, Our King, we’ve sinned before you

Our Father our King, we have no king but you…


That insight of SE is awesome!

On RH, the “regular HC” of the year ascends, not to the most primordial statues of the Beginning, when ELKM ruled alone and YHVH Alone,

but rather to the ‘interim status’ of the HC in Eden, when ‘YHVH ELKM’ ruled as One Loving parent, forming the Adam.


That Court, says SE, is more open to our petitions and prayer, so let’s use the passing opportunity! After RH, after Yom Kippur, the HC would descend back to its normal status of YHVH and ELKM. The King.


 Since we are trying to understand SE’s statement that RH is related to Eden,

Let’s see how the title Our Father Our King comes from Eden.    



Prior to the Primordial sin, G-d (YHVH ELKM) ordered – Commanded – on Adam

not to eat from the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil,

for “the day you eat of it you will die!”


It is like advising a child not to touch a poison ivy in the garden,

lest he gets an allergy.

The child doesn’t know what Allergy is, yet he would abide by his parent’s wards

for he trusts them.


But the word “commanded on Adam” infers that Adam grew in Eden

so that his parent’s advice wasn’t enough to keep him away from sinning.

G-d   therefore Commanded on him as an authority,

whether he understood the reason or not.

At that point G-d relates to Adam as both a FATHER and a KING.


No wonder then that on Rosh Hashanah, as the Court ascends to as it was before the Sin,

we refer to Him as Our Father, Our King, Avinu Manlkeinu.



Now the SE asks:

It could be that Adam and his wife did finally repent in Eden and became very good,

Yet the verdict to place a real Adam on Earth had already been issued.

Life would be seeded on Earth on Day Three, then evolve into Vegetation and animals

In a natural way so that a real Adam would appear on the Sixth Day.


Yet the Eden experience showed the CREATOR, YE, that Adam CAN repent on Earth and become Very Good. The CREATOR therefore gave Adam TWO TOOLS to help him:

  1. Repentance,
  2. The Tora


Both were given already in Eden. How?



After the Sin, although Adam and his wife were doomed to be expelled from Eden,

yet they were not. Instead, they were kept in Eden, while YHVH ELKM wondered

“Back and forth” in front of them.

Yes, they were ashamed of their nakedness, and of their sin,

they even hid in the bush, but they did not come out , repent and ask forgiveness.

Whereas the whole purpose of YHVH presence in the Court is  to accept repentance and offer forgiveness, something that ELKM alone would not offer.


The Father-King YHVH ELKM then called:

“Adam where are you?”  Come to me and repent!

Yet they did not.  Adam blamed his wife, and she the Serpent.

Subsequently they were driven out, yet they got the message:

HENCEFORTH, REPENTANCE would help to correct their sin, restore their purity

like it was prior to the Sin.


That was one way to repair their status.



The second way to correct the primordial sin, says SE,

Is by observing the Torah.   This was also given to then in Eden.  How?


When G-d “Commanded on the Adam” not to eat from the Tree,

the word “Commanded” is certainly superfluous, says the Talmud.


It suggests, as we’ve learned, that besides warning Adam as a FATHER and a KING,

G-d, YHVH ELKM, also gave Adam the Six Commandments, namely





All those Six Commandments of Adam were given to him while he was still alone,

way before the Sin.  They were given to him in case he would sin, driven out and live on real Earth.  When that happens, all the Six would become relevant to his life. Meanwhile in Eden, before the advent of the woman, only the first Commandment, IDOLATRY, was relevant.  Had Adam not eaten from the Fruit, has he listened to his Father-king, he and his wife could have reached the next Day, the Sabbath, from Eden.


So why were the Six Commandments given to Adam? – As a potential remedy.

They were given to him as a way to restore his purity like it was before the Sin.

Observing the Commandments, along with Repentance, would bring Adam back to Ede


As it happened, those originally Six Commandments of Adam have turned Seven,

With the addition of Noah’s Seventh Law.

Then they turned eight, with the addition oof Abraham’s eighth, circumcision.

Then they turned nine, with the addition of Jacob’s ninth, the Sciatic Nerve prohibition,

Then they turned ten, on Sinai along with the giving of the entire Torah to Israel.


Thus, says the SE, observing the Torah along with Repentance, would help Adam to restore

Our purity as it was prior to the Primordial Sin, so that humanity would be deemed Very Good and enter the Sabbath.



What do we pray for on RH?


  1. The End of IDOLATRY. This would be the main obstacle to reach the Sabbath. In fact, IDOLATRY is the only commandment mentioned in Genesis chapter One, as ELKM created Adam using a plural language, as we’ve learned.
  2. The acceptance of YHVH and ELKM as the King, by of all Mankind.
  3. The end of wickedness and evilness in the world, meaning the end of “Very Bad” option






Before the Beginning, the CREATOR’S Attributes YHVH and ELKM had never intermingled.

Each Attribute ruled over its own Universe “awesomely alone.”


ELKM                                                           YHVH







 At the Beginning, says Rashi, the Infinite CREATOR thought to create this world by ELKM alone, judgment alone, but seeing that Adam would not withstand such a tough rule, He participated the Attribute of Mercy in the Court.  ELKM then consulted YHV saying “Let Us make Adam in our form and our image”.  Henceforth earth is ruled by “YHVH and ELKM” Court, also called The King.

YHVH first entered our world, as shown at the end of the Sixth Day, overriding the transition   between the Sixth and the Seventh Day.  Part of her – YH – lies in the Sixth Day,

The other part VH is still in the Sabbath




ELKM                                     YH/VH





Then YHVH and ELKM formed (not created) together, as YHVH ELKM, the Garden of Eden with Adam in it



ELKM                                     YH/VH



Garden of Eden




As the Torah says explicitly, Eden was “formed” on a Day where there was not yet any shrub or a tree or any life on real Earth, not even rain! It must be the Third Day, says the Midrash.


The Sefat Emeth concurs: Eden was formed, he says, after only one saying “that it was good.” That was said on Day One. On the 2nd Day there was not saying.  Hence, when Adam was formed in Eden only afar “One say,” he could have reached the Sabbath directly from there, Eden WITHOUT EVER LIVING ON EARTH, SO THAT THERE WOULD HAVE BEEN NO NEED  FOR   DAYS 3 (the rest of it) ,4, 5, and 6 ON REAL EARTH.


The HC that “formed” Eden was unique.  Unlike the rest of the Torah, the Attributes YHVH and ELKM appear “glued together” Wing against Wing, the way Moses depicted the Golden Cherubs on the Holy Ark.  There, in Eden, the Loving Parents “formed” their child Adam.


Then, after they were driven out of Eden, Adam (Mankind) lives on earth

Under the reign of YHVH and ELK



Hence we have the following successive HC:

  •  At the Beginning, ELKM had on mind ‘CREATING’ the Six Days “awesomely alone.”
  • Then YHVH ELKM ‘FORMED’ the Garden of Eden with Adam in it, as a trial.
  • Then YHVH and ELKM seeded life on Earth and MADE the world.


On RH, the “lower Court” of YHVH and ELKM ‘ascends’, for a short time, to the Court of YHVH ELKM, like the two Golden Cherubs o the Holy Ark. The Court judges us how much we’ve moved towards the Sabbath.


Any endeavor passes through those three stages.

For instance, when I want to build a house for myself I would:


  1. First think about its purpose: would it be commercial or residential, big or small, etc. I’ve CREATED the house on my mind.


  1. Secondly, I would engage an architect who would translate by desire to a real plan, on the paper or on the computer screen to see if it would work. We’ve FORMED  the house.


  1. Thirdly, I would engage a contractor who would put the house on the ground, in the real world. We’ve MADE the house.



Indeed, Genesis Chapter One is written using the term “CREATED,”

The story of Eden is written using the verse “FORMED”

Then Adam and Eve were MADE on Earth.



  •    ADAM






























































\the two Attributes declare a fresh start.  They ascend back to their former position they held at the Beginning of the race. ELKM sits high again on His pedestal as a Supreme Judge, and the Merciful Attribute ascends back to Her first moment oof entering our Universe.

At that point they decide which contestant would be terminated right away, who would get an extension period to repentance and forgiveness, and who would get ahead refreshed and replenished with new energy and blessing.