Copy Right 2022

Rabbi Dr Zvi Aviner









Safeguard the Sabbath day to sanctify it,

As YHVH your ELKM ha commanded you….

In order that your slave and maid may rest like you

and you shall remember that you were a save in Egypt Land

and YHVH your ELKM has taken you out from there

with the strong Hand and outstretched arm.

Therefore, YHVH your ELKM has commanded you

to make the Sabbath day (Deut. 5: 12-15)



The second aspect of the Sabbath, is a day of remembering the Exodus.



The text says it all: when you rest on the Sabbath, remember to let

everyone in your household, including your animals, to rest too.

The scholars refer to this as the “Social Sabbat”


But Sefat Emeth says that the Torah ordains here something larger than

the Social Sabbath. Here, he says, YHVH (HaSheM) revealed Himself



Thus, He REDEEMED Israel from slavery to the Egyptian idols,

as well from slavery to Pharaoh.

By this, YHVH revealed His/Hers capacity to intervene

in human history as well as and in Nature – His KINGSHIP.


Few words about Kingship

Whereas in Genesis, YHVH appears as a CREATOR

and the King of the Universe who runs nature

and is residing deeply inside every item,

the unseen  MOVING POWER who still creates

and supports nature – the world,


In the story of the Exodus, YHVH reveals Himself (Herself)

as the unseen MOVING POWER of human history.


That aspect is shown clearly in the Torah only in the

story of Joseph ending with the Exodus.

The story begins with our awareness of the Heavenly Decree

told to Abraham, that His seeds would be enslaved in Egypt for 400 years.


Then, watching Joseph and his tribulations,

we witness how the Heavenly Court executes its Decree

to bring Jacob down to Egypt.

But the Heavenly Court operates behind the scene.


The Midrash says:

Reuben moves in his own world, Judah moves in his world

Jacob in his world, Joseph in is world, and G-d in His world.


Thus, every one of the participants in the story is moving freely

with full choice in his world, oblivious to the Heavenly Decree,

while   ELKM is manipulating the events so that at the end,

Jacob and the family would end down in Egypt.


Since they sold their brother to slavery,

their family would be enslaved for 210 years

In a perfect example of ELKM’s Measure for Measure JUSTICE.


That capacity of the Heavenly Court to intervene in history

Is referred to as His Kingship.


In the Burning Bush scene, YHVH appears to Moses The KING brought them to Egypt,

and inform him that He/She would REDEEM and SAVE Israel.

Thus, the Exodus reveals YHVH as a KING Who manipulate history,

who is a SAVEIER and a REDEEMER.


 How KINGSHIP is shown in the Ten Commandments?

This new revelation of YHVH’s Kingship is expressed

in Sinai Ten Commandments that says:


I Am (Essence)

YHVH your ELKM (Attributes)

Who took you out of Egypt Land (Kingship)


Here His KINGSHIP is no more “Who Created the World” as in Genesis,

but rather in the new title: “Who has taken you from Egypt Land.”


Is This new Kingship relevant only to Israel?

As shown in the Song over the Splitting of the Reed Sea,

the impact of the Exodus shocked the entire region,

and all the surrounding nations heard about it.

as it is said “it was then that the nations were stirred up…”


The stage was then set up – says Sefat Emeth – for all the nations

to join Israel and travel to Mt Sinai, in order

to receive the Torah together with Israel!


This would have been a wonderful end of IDOLATRY,

and the world could have become a better place to live in,

moving towards the Eternal Sabbath to Come.


Had not one nation come and attacked Israel for no reason

but a sheer hatred, attempting to destroy Israel and her faith.


This nation, as you know, was Amalec.

So fierce was the battle between Joshua and Amalec,

that Moses had to stand up on the hill, raise his hands

to Heavens all day long, with prayer, inspiring Israel to win.


So threatening was the attack, that HaShM said to Moses:

“Write this as a remembrance in the book

and recite it in the ears of Joshua,

that I shall surely erase the memory of Amalec

from under the Heavens.



“Moses built an altar and called its name

“YHVH is my Miracle (Banner)” and he said:

For the hand is on the Throne of Y-H

that YHVH maintains a war against Amalec

From generation to generation.” (Exodus 17: 14-16)


Instead of joining Israel and receiving  with them the Torah,

the evil Amalec “severed the Y-H from V-H,”

threatening to arrest the world from proceeding to the Sabbath.


Amalec action affected the nations adversely,

since they all retracted from Israel and kept their distance afar.

Instead of joining Israel and accepting the Torah,

they opted to follow Amalec.


One Noahide – Yithro!

Only one person saved the day, his name was Yithro,

Moses’ father-in-law.


Immediately following Amalec,

The Torah tells us about Yithro :


“Yithro heard everything that ELKM did

to Moses and Israel His people, 

that YHVH had taken Israel out of Egypt,

and he came to Moses to the wilderness,

where he was camping there, at the Mount of ELKM…” (Exodus 18: 1-6)



Unlike Amalec, says Sefat Emeth, Yithro did come to Moses and Israel.

He rejoiced hearing about the Exodus, and he was impressed

by the fact that the Heavenly Court punished Pharaoh

with the same waters that he had used to drown Israel’s sons.


Yithro understood that YHVH had revealed Himself as




A new stage in the redemption of the world

Hence, the Exodus – says Sefat Emeth – is not only a revelation to Israel.

It constitutes a stage in the REDEEMPTION of the world

In it progresses towards the Eternal Sabbath.


Yithro heard Seven Voices

Unlike Amalec and its followers, Yithro and his family joined Israel

to Sinai (according to many commentators) and he and his family

heard Seven Voices of YHVH at Sinai, referring to the  Seven Noahide Laws

as shown in the following Psalm we chant every Sabbath eve.

It says:


  1. The voice of YHVH is upon the waters
  2. The voice of YHVH is in power
  3. The voice of YHVH is in majesty
  4. The voice of YHVH breaks the cedars
  5. The voice of YHVH cleaves with the shafts of fire
  6. The voice of YHVH convulses the wilderness
  7. The voice of YHVH frightens the hinds…” (Psalms 29



Yithro heard those “seven voices” and bowed to HaSheM,


“YHVH will give Oz – strength – to his nation Israel

YHVH will bless His people by peace.” (there)


Yithro was content to accept the 7 Commandments,

knowing that Israel received the entire 613 Commandments..


He and his family later formed a camp of their own,

the seventh cams of Israel, as they moved together

in the Wilderness towards the Land of Israel.


At that time, Yithro’s camp was small, comprising of one family,

but potentially it would become the greatest camp of all,

comprising of Mankind.


More about Yithro

The Sefat Emeth quotes Jeremiah who says:


“YHVH is my Oz, my strength, my stronghold,

and my refuge in the day of travai,

to you, nations will come from the end of the earth and say,  

our ancestors inherited only falsehood futility

 that has no purpose…” (16: 19)


The Midrash observes that when Yithro bowed and blessed Israel

he said: YHVH will bring Oz, strength, to his nation Israel.”


Hence, when Jeremiah said “YHVH is my Oz, strength,”

he was referring to Yiitho.


Hence Yithro, the first Noahide, was the opposite of Amalec.

He accepted the fact that Israel received the Ten Commandments

while he heard Seven.  Instead of fighting Israel with jealousy,

Yithro formed his supporting camp around Israel.

While Israel had six “camps” – four facing the four corners of the world,

the inner Levite camps forms the fifth, while the Holy Tabernacle the Sixth,

Yithro formed the seventh, surrounding the six of Israel.


Hence the nemesis of Noahides is Amalec,  

who try to lead the nations against Israel.


We dedicate the Sabbath daytime meal

to remember  the KINGSHIP of Hashem

and His intervention in history as shown by 

the Exodus from Egypt.


By this we have enlarged the concept of the Sabbath,

recognizing YHVH not only as the CREATOR

but also, as a REDEEMER and a SAVIOR.


So, when we rest on the Sabbath,

we remember not only that this is a day of rest for the Shechinah,

but also a day of freedom from slavery to idols

and to human oppressors.


By this we’ve enlarged the notion of our Sabbath day,

as a step towards the redemption of the entire world

in its journey towards the futuristic Sabbath Day.


Having discussed the aspect of the sabbath of Genesis,

and the aspect of the sabbath of the Exodus,

let’s discuss the third aspect of the Sabbath,

as a remembrance day of Moses’