Copy Right 2022

Rabbi Dr Zvi Aviner


The 13 Attributes of Judgment 






Chapter One is telling us that for Six Days,

ELHM built the World, Day by Day,

as a Six Floors Building,

placing each Floor on top of the previous one.


And that at the end of each Day, each Floor,

ELHM – as a BUILDER- checked that Floor to see

whether it was strong enough to carry another Floor on top.


If the Floor was “good” in the BUILDER’S eye,

if it was strong and viable and capable of supporting another Floor on top,

the BUILDER would allow it to stay.


The verse expresses that JUDGMENT by saying:

And ELKM saw that it was good, 

there was evening, and there was morning,

the Day (was over.)


Note that the option of being “good” implies

the opposite option of being ‘not good.”

Tradition says (and there are clues for that) that in that case,

if a Floor couldn’t support the next one,

ELKM, the BUILDER-JUDGE, would eliminate it

or discard it like a scaffold that is no longer needed.



Hence, during the Six Days of CREATION,

the BUILDER acted also as a JUDGE,

assessing His CREATION.


Note that the terms “good” and “not good” here

have no moral connotation, and they are seen

strictly from the BUILDER’S eyes.

The yardstick here is “efficiency” rather than morality.





 2: ELHM Pursues Absolute Justice and Truth



Tradition also says that ELKM follows the Absolute Justice and Truth.   

He is called “The truthful JUDGE,” (Dayan Ha-Emeth.)

His nickname is “Truth, (emeth)
His signature” is “Truth.”

Hence, wherever His Name appears in the text,

It is a stamp of truthfulness.



Since His Name appears 32 times in the Six Days of CREATION,

the story must be true.

Indeed, later we’ll see how true the story of CREATION is.





3: ELHM Pays Back “Measure for Measure” 

(Midah for Midah)




ELKM’s retributions are precise, “Measure for Measure,”

in exact fashion. 

Thus, under His rule, like during the Six Days,

creatures are allowed to eat other creatures

because they too would be eaten.


A wolf may prey on the lamb,

since soon, a tree would fall on the wolf

in Absolute Justice.


Under Him, creatures are allowed to inflict pains on others,

because they too would suffer pains.

Note that Man lives under ELKM,

abiding by His rule of “measure for measure.”


Also note that it was “The Finger Of ELHM”

who  wrote in the Torah the rule:

An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth”. (Exodus 32: 15)




 4: ELoHiM’s Judgment is Harsh and Merciless




ELKM’s Judgment is precise and harsh, with no mercy.

So, when He, as the BUILDER, deems a creature or a Day as not good anymore,

He would eliminate it readily with no remorse or mercy.





5: ELHM Created the Six Days as a Dictator,

Awesomely Alone 




During the Six Days of CREATION,

ELHM created the world by giving Commands.

He said, “Let there be Light” and Light was.

He said “Let they Earth grow grass” and it did.

He said, “Let Luminaries hang in the sky” and they did.


Thus, during these Six Day, He ruled and created “Awesomely Alone”,

discussing or consulting no one, and no one dared to object Him.


 It was only before making Adam, that ELHM changed the way He ruled,

and instead of giving an order such as “let there be an Adam,”

He spoke in plural, saying “Let Us Make an Adam in Our Form and our Image.”

Hence, before making Adam, He relinquished His Sole Power, as a Dictator,

And acted  as a King Who Consult





6: ELHM Created with Wisdom 





Nature is built by ELHM’s Wisdom.

The more we know about the Universe by our Science,

the more we appreciate that Godly Wisdom.


The Rabbis found a hint for that Wisdom in the verse saying:

“In the Beginning, ELKM created the Heavens and the Earth”


The Hebrew word for Beginning, “Be-reishit”

can be read as “At the head of the events,”

implying that He used His Head, 

or the Wisdom and Science in His Head

to create the Heavens and the Earth.


What sort of Wisdom ELHM used to create the world?

Kabbalah, as well as tradition, says that this wisdom is “binah”,

which stands for “minute details,” or “deriving one concept from another.”

Hence there is a ‘general wisdom’, khochma, referring to general perception,

as opposed to ‘binah,’ the details of the khochma, and ‘daat’: the practical implication.


Thus, the wisdom of ELKM seeing in nature is in the enormous, explosive number

of its creatures, that are separated between themselves by minute features.

His wisdom is also shown in the way the creatures are built, and in the laws of nature.


Note that ELKM’s wisdom is also reflected in the judgment itself

as well as in the laws that split and divert endlessly, as shown by the Talmud itself. 




 7: ELHM Creates and JUDGES with Precision




ELHM’s precision as a BUILDER and a JUDGE

is reflected in Nature.


His Natural Laws are so precise, that they can be expressed by mathematics.

For instance: If you have changed an item, you may get another Universe.

For instance: If you ust change the electrons’ charge a little bit

you’d get another Universe. Hence the saying that our Universe is “elegant.”




 8: ELoHiM is Kind, the Ultimate Provider



Merciless and Harsh He is, yet Kind. He is the Ultimate Provider,

who provides every creature with the talent and the resources

needed for its survival.  Thus –


1: He gave the vegetation   born on the Third Day,

the talent to perform photo synthesis.


2: He gave the fish born on the Fifth Day,

the gills and the fins to swim.


3: He gave the birds made on the Fifth Day,

the wings to soar up and eyes to catch fish.


4: He gave the crocodiles made  on the Fifth Day,

the talents to lie like a log to catch birds.


5: He gave the cattle born on the Sixth Day,

 the talent to digest so much vegetation.


6: He gave the beasts made on the Sixth Day,

the talent to prey on cattle.


7: He gave the crawling creatures made on the Sixth Day,

 the teeth to bite and tear flesh apart.


8: He gave Adam made on the Sixth Day,

 the mind and body heneeds to survive and thrive in his habitat.




9: ELoHiM “Sits” at the Heart of Nature




Where is ELHM? Above? Below? We can only say that,

since His Name appears 32 times in the Six Days,

and since 32 is written “Lb”, ‘a heart’ in Hebrew,

ELHM therefore ‘sits’ at the Heart of Nature,

sustaining it as the heart sustains the body.



the numerical value of “EeLoHiM” is 86,

the same as for ‘The Nature,’ Ha-teva.

Hence, ELKM created Nature. 




10: ELoHiM Uses Water as a Whip  



Genesis verse 1:2 says:

And the wind (spirit) of ELKM,

 was hovering over the waters.” 



  1. ELHM’s Throne of Judgment hovers over waters.
  2.  ELHM uses water as a whip, as in Noah’s Flood.
  1. ELKM is enthroned over water, as on Rosh Hashanah holiday.





11: ELHM Sees Everything




ELHM’s Justice penetrates everything, like water.

Nothing escapes His Scrutiny.





12:  ELHM’s Justice is Equal to All  



ELHM recognizes neither royalty nor privileges.

His judgment is equal and even to all, like water surface.




13:  ELoHiM Weights our Merits on His Scale




ELHM weights our deeds on His Scale:

He places our merits on one side, our sins on the other.
The tilt of the scale would determine whether we are either –

Righteous or Wicked in His eyes.


Note that ELHM does not judge us by our character,

but rather by our actions.


Now that we’ve delineated some of the ways,

that ELHM acts and judges, and that He seeks the TRUTH,

we may ask: is the story of Genesis true?

Can it be matched by our scientific knowledge?