© 2019 by Rabbi Zvi Aviner
Genesis Vs Evolution
Class 4: Making Adam
Now that we’ve established Moses’s credibility about the history of the World, is he also credible about the history of Man?
Let’s compare the history of Man according to Science, to Mose’s words in Genesis about the creation of Adam. Ca these two narratives be matched? .
1: The Scientific Narrative of Man’s Evolution
Science says (according to the History Chanel) that Man appeared on Earth gradually over the last 2 Million years. The growth of Mammals actually began 75 Million years ago, following the meteoric catastrophe that wiped out all the giant creatures of Pangea , including the Dinosaurs. As devastating as the catastrophe was, yet it changed the climate in our favor. Small creatures like Mammals could now proliferate and evolve faster than before. First came Large Apes, then Primitive Man like Homo Erectus and Homo Neanderthal (0.7-0.4 Million years ago) than Homo Sapience, “Wise Man,” us (about 0.4 M years ago.)
Why Mammals? What gave mammals the advantage of growing more than other creatures? The scientists debate on that. Some say that mammal’s ability to stand upright and free their hands gave them the advantage. Others credit some mysterious chemical in the mammal mother’s milk.. After all, MILK is what distinguishes mammals, by definition. Others say that the protection that mammals give to their offspring is what has promoted their growth. Whereas Crocodiles eat their babies to prevent competition, mammals nourish their babies, to promote their proliferation.
As Man evolved, Science says, so did his Brain. Our mind after all is what makes us Homo Sapience, Wise Man. Our mind endows us with abstract thinking, language, imagination and fascination. You can see this fascinations in Cave Man’s painting of hunting scenes on his cave’s walls. Our mind allows us to invent tools and comprehend the way the Universe works.
But Science also believes that our mind does not set us essentially apart from other creatures. We simply won the race. Following the demise of the Dinosaurs, Science says, a race began between several social creatures – like ants, spiders and bees- to develop smart colonies and societies. It is as if the Universe “demands the presence of an intelligent creature in it.” Given more time, like several more million years, other social creatures besides Man may catch up and develop their own I-Phones, computers and Space Ships. Man won the race simply by the climate changes in our favor.
Science also recognizes steps in the development of every individual Man.
1) In the uterus,every human embryo repeats the entire Evolution We all start as a tiny cell that divides and grows. We then pass through stages that resemble fish, bird, lizard,cattle and beasts (ontho genesis repeats the philo genesis. )
2) As toddlers, we learn to walk, talk and relate to our environment. Our ‘self’ or ‘ego’ and ;will; develop. Typically the child points on things around him and say “I want this ” or “I do not want this”. Asked to draw his family, the child would depict himself at a large figure at the center, his parents smaller and on the background, while his ;are tiny circles somewhere back. The scientists hold that our ‘self’ or ‘ego’ sets us apart from other social creatures such as ants and bees, to our advantage.
3) As young children we develop our mind and logic. . .At age 8-12 our psyche is directed to the Universe. We develop in interest in science. We swallow encyclopedias. We are truly Homo Sapience, Wise Man
4) Closely to the same time we also develop a sense for beauty and Art. We paint, draw, and are fascinated by music and the magic of nature. The scientists see that feature of Man as another attribute that separates us from the rest of the animals. Moreover, Art and Science when combined, become a powerful tool to understand the world and create technology. See the I Phone as an example.
5) As we turn into young adulthood, our budding Sex Drive begin to dominate our lives. Our fascination with the opposite sex overshadows any other activity. It would continue to dominate our lives forever. As Sigmund Freud has discovered, our Sex Drives pushes us forwards to achieve things. Moreover, it is stronger in us than in Nature. While all other creatures mate at a particular season, Man is driven by it all year long.This feature too, science says, acts in our advantage over the rest of the world
6) As young adults, our passion and desires turns towards our social communities. Young adults are motivated by the Drive for Power (Carl Jung.) We struggle to make a name for our selves, to gain respect, status, power, and to leave a legacy. . Without that Drive, Man would stay idle.
This, in general terms, is what Science says about Man. We are at the apex of Evolution. We are blessed by a Self Perception and Free Will. We have a Smart, logical Brain, with a heart open to Art, and we are driven by powerful drives for Sex and Seeking Power. All these features have given us an advantage over all other creatures of Earth.
Let’s see now What Moses says about Adam
MOSES’S ACCOUNT OF ADAM’S CREATION
Compared to our scientific account
1: The text in Genesis about creating Adam
WHEN THE SIXTH DAY DAWNED
”And GOD (ELKIM) said Let the Earth bring forth living creatures to their kinds
Cattle, Creeping things and Beasts of the Earth to their kinds, and it was so
THE MIDDAY JUDGMENT OF THE SIXTH DAY:
And GOD (ELKM) saw that it was good.
ANNOUNCING THE PLAN TO CREATE ADAM
“And GOD (ELKM) said: LET US MAKE AN ADAM IN OUR FORM AND OUR IMAGE
“And GOD (ELKM) created The Adam in His Image, in the Image of GOD (ELKM) He created him, male and female He created them.
And GOD (ELKM) blessed them and said to them
Be fruitful and multiply, filled the Earth and conquer it, rule over the Fish…Birds…and all the Beasts…
THE SIXTH DAY’S FINAL JUDGMENT
And GOD (ELKM) saw EVERYTHING that HE had DONE
And behold, it was VERY GOOD
And there was evening, and there was morning, the SIXTH DAY” (was over.)
…………………THE SABBATH DAY BEGINS………………………..
“And the Heavens and the Earth were FINISHED
And GOD (ELKM) FINISHED all the Work that He has done,
And He ABSTAINED on the SEVENTH DAY from all the work that He had done
And GOD (ELKM) blessed the Seventh Day and He sanctified it….
For in it He ABSTAINED from all His work that GOD (ELKM) had created, to do.” (Genesis 1-31; 2 1-3)
THE GARDEN OF EDEN
“And the LORD (YHVH) GOD (ELKM) formed the Adam from the dust of the ground” (genesis 2:4)
We’ve learned already that on the surface, Moses’s Genesis differs from the Scientific story. The world including Adam – he seems to be saying – was created only 5779 years ago and in just one week. Science, in contrast, says that the Universe is 13.7 Billion years old and that Man evolved over millions years.
But the truth is that Moses does not mention 5779 years. This number has been calculated retrospectively, from Cain and Able (Chapters 4 and forwards.) This calculation does not necessarily pertain to Genesis Chapters One.
Indeed, as we’ve seen, Kabala says that each Day of CREATION lasted 2.1 B years on the average. A Day of CREATION constitutes a Floor in a Six Floors BUILDING – Nature. Hence the age of the Universe is 6×2.1 B =12.6 B years, quite close to the number offered by Science.
Man, according to this narrative, has been living on the Sixth Floor, as the last tenant in the BUILDING, with millions of years behind him and millions of years ahead of him .
It is conceivable therefore that even according to Moses, Man has grown in stages – from primordial mammals to Apes to Primitive Man then to Modern Man. This process may have taken many years, compatible with Science.
Thus again, Moses’s story CAN be matched with Science,something you can’t do with any of the myths told in his time.
Moses Account of Making Adam
As the Sixth Day downed, Moses says, GOD (ELKM) continued to create as ever before. Still ruling Awesomely Alone as a Dictator, asking no one’s opinion, He issued commands and said “let it be…” and things happened. This way He created the Cattle Like and the Beast Like and the Crawling creatures as it says
“Let the Earth bring forth living creatures to their kinds,
Cattle-like and Crawling Creatures and the Beast of Earth to its kinds
And so it was” (Genesis 1: 24)
Then, as the Sixth Day was closing, GOD (ELKM) passed an early midday Judgment on everything He had created earlier on that Day, as it is said
“And GOD (ELKM) said that it was good.” (Genesis 1: 25)
As in the past, a good verdict implied that those creatures whom He deemed ‘not good anymore’ He eliminated. They had fulfilled their task. They would not be able to enter the rest of the Sixth Day and live by Adam’s side. On the other hand, the creatures He deemed good had to adapt and support the appearance of Adam on Earth
This midday judgment of the Sixth Day can fit the catastrophe that hit our planet 75 M years ago,wiping out the large creatures of Pangea. The huge Cattle-like, Beasts-like including the Dinosaurs were eliminated. Yet saying that it was good also implied that GOD (ELKM) was pleased, and the change in the environment would enable the appearance of Adam on Earth.
GOD (ELKM) made then a series of concessions towards Adam. First, instead of issuing another Command such as “Let there be an Adam!” He changed His tone and said softly in plural voice-
Let Us Make an Adam In Our Form and Our Image
He spoke in plural, as if to no one in particular, as if consulting with other opinions. He became a Dictator no more. In other wards, to create Adam, He ‘descended’ from his High Pedestal as a Supreme JUDGE, and set on the Throne of KING Who Consults His subjects in modesty. By this, He would be more open to Adam’s pleas and supplications.
In Hebrew, the title King – melekch- is derived from the verb nim-lakh, consulted. Unlike a Tyrant, a King is a ruler who consults his subjects before issuing a decree, a democratic ruler. No other language carries that notion.
With whom, exactly, did GOD (ELKM) consult in plural voice to create Adam?
Tradition says: “with whoever was listening” or “whoever is listed in Chapter One” from the Beginning to that point of time. He spoke to them all and invited them to participate in the making of Adam. .
In addition GOD (ELKM) also spoke to items mentioned ahead of Adam, inviting them to join and participate in the making of Adam. By this, GOD (ELKM) planted in Adam a direction to grow in the future. Adam would connect the past Six Days with the future, the Sabbath.
Let us count with whom did GOD (ELKM) consult to make Adam.
1. GOD (ELKM) Consulted the Six Days
And made Adam
First, GOD (ELKM) turned ‘backwards’ and spoke to the Six Days. To each Day He said
Let Us Make an Adam in Our Form and Our Image.”
He then consulted each Day like a BUILDER consulting His plan, and made successive layers in Adam’s body. Thus-
Consulting the First Day, He built a layer in Adam made of Light and Matter and stuff that galaxies and stars are made of.
Consulting the Second Day, He built another layer in Adam made of Water. No wonder that our bodies consist mainly of water
Consulting the Third Day, He built another layer in Adam based on Vegetation. Our body therefore harbors blood vessels brunching like a tree , our eyes too see by a sort of photosynthesis.
Consulting the Fourth Day He set up in our body systems that are ensitive to night and days, and annual seasons. These systems are crucial for the heath of our nervous system.
Consulting the Fifth Day, He Built more layers in our bodies that resemble Fish, Birds and Amphibians .
Consulting the Sixth Day, s He built other layers in our bodies that resemble Cattle, Beasts and Crawling creatures.
The evidence for those consultations is in the way the human embryo develops in the womb. Here Moses concurs in full with Science. Indeed, “Ontho genesis repeats philo genesis..
2 GOD (ELKM) consulted His Self
and planted it in Adam
GOD ELKM) then turned to the beginning of the chapter, where it says “In the Beginning, GOD (ELKM) created the Heavens and the Earth.” The Hebrew world selected here for “Beginning” – BeReshit- actually means “the head of the events.” Hence GOD ELKM) turned to “His Own Head” or to “items in His Head” such as His Self Consciousness and ‘Fee Will” and said to it in plural voice –
Let us Make an Adam In Our Form and Our Image..”
Indeed, His Free Will and Self Consciousness were the most primordial entities that started the Universe. By speaking in plural, He meant “Let me and you make Adam.”
GOD (ELKM) than consulted His Free Will and Self Consciousness, like a BUILDER consulting His Plan, and made Adam’s Self and Free Will accordingly. Hence our Self Perception and Free Will are of a Divine origin. We should therefore cherish them and cultivate them.
Other religions and traditions, mainly in the Far East, have denied the existence of a ‘self’ in Man. They regard it as a psychic mirage. Other scholars and theologians have denied the existence of Man’s Free Will. The Greek, for instance, believed in a per-determined Destiny.
Here again Moses concurs with Science that our Self and Free Will develops early in the human child, .
3 . GOD (ELKM) consulted His Wisdom and Science
And made Adam
Next, GOD (ELKM) turned to another feature in His “Head” namely the “Wisdom and Science by Which He had Created the World” (RamBaN.) and said to it in plural voice
Let us Make An Adam, In Our Form and Our Image.
He then consulted His “Wisdom and Science” – like a BUILDER consulting His plan – and made Adam’s mind accordingly. No wonder that our mind can unravel all the mysteries of the Universes. There would be nothing in this Universe that could evade our searching mind. Adam indeed is a Homo Sapience, a Smart Man
Here again Moses concurs with science that (1) first we repeat the evolution in the uterus (2) then we develop a self at a young age (3) then we turn our mind to the science and wisdom by which the universe was made e
4. GOD (ELKM) Consulted Art
And made Adam
Next, GOD (ELKM) turned to another entity mentioned earlier in the Chapter, namely “the Spirit of ELKM” as it is said
“And the Spirit of GOD (ELKM) hovered over the water” (Genesis 1: 2)
What is the “Spirit of ELKM? Moses defines it as the talent for Craftsmanship and Art, as it is said in the Book of Exodus
And the LORD (YHVH) called in the name of Bezalel …
And he filled him with the Spirit of GOD (ELKM)….
of Wisdom, Insight and Knowledge and with every craft,
to wave designs, to work with gold, silver and copper
And stone cutting for setting,
and wood crafting, to perform every craft of design” (Exodus 35: 30-33)
The builders of the holy Tabernacle were filled with the Spirit of ELKM enabling then to create beautiful Art. Here at CREATION, GOD ELKM consulted His “Spirit” of Art and made Adam’s heart and mind accordingly
Here again Moses concurs with Science about the importance of Art in our life. Yes, Wisdom and Science are intertwined with Art and beuty to create effective technology
5: GOD (ELKM) consulted “Sex Drive”
And made Adam
Having exhausted all the items mentioned earlier in the Chapter, GOD (ELKM) turned to things mentioned ahead of Adam. He consulted with then too – to drive Adam forwards. The first Drive mentioned is the Sex Drive as it is said –
GOD ELKM blessed them and said to them
Be fruitful and multiply, filled the Earth and conquer it
and rule over the Fish…Birds…and all the Beasts…”
GOD (ELKM) turned to “Be Fruitful and Multiply” namely the Drive to Procreate, or the Sex Drive, and said to it in plural voice
Let Us make an Adam in Our Form and Our Image
He consulted the Sex Drive, like a Builder consulting his plan, and made Adam’s heart accordingly. Moreover, He blessed Adam with it. By this implies He made our Sex Drive stronger than is seen regularly in Nature. It would move us forwards to create and achieve our goals. It would also enrich our life.
By this again Moses concurs with Science. Sigmund Freud was right- Sex Drive underlies the pursuing of achievements
6: GOD (ELKM) consulted the Drive For Power
And made Adam
Still planning Adam, GOD (ELKM) turned to another Drive mentioned in the chapter ahead of Adam, namely the Drive To Rule Over, and said to it in plural voice
“Let us, me and you, make an Adam in our Form and our Image.”
You see that Drive in the verse, that says
GOD ELKM blessed them and said to them
Be fruitful and multiply, filled the Earth and conquer it,
and rule over the Fish…Birds…and all the Beasts…”
GOD (ELKM) consulted the Drive for Power, like a Builder consulting his plan, and made Adam’s heart and mind accordingly. Seeking Power would dominate our lives and propel us forwards more than any other Drive, .
In Nature too, the Drives to Procreate and the Drive for Power are intertwined. In Adam, they are stronger than in other creatures of Nature. .
Moreover, since the Drive for Power is placed in the verses ahead of the Sex Drive, it implies that Seeking Power is the strongest of all. . Carl Hung was right.
So far we have seen that Moses does concur with Science about Adam’s features. Moses actually present them in the same order they appear in the growing human child.
First he describes the order by which the Six Days evolved, then the order a human child evolves. It is the same story- told first about Nature than about Man. .
So far Moses concurs with Science. But there is one more ingredient in Adam that science does not recognizes, For that let’s pay attention now to the next and final Seventh consultation.
7. He Consulted the Attribute of MERCY
And Made Adam
Having described HOW Adam was made, Moses turns now to describe WHY. At the end of the Sixth Day it is said
And GOD (ELKM) saw everything that he had done
And behold it was Very Good
Before making Adam, GOD (ELKM) said that it was good. He was satisfied with a good verdict and continued to create Adam. Then, after creating Adam, at the End of the Sixth Day, GOD (ELKM) would be pleased only with a Very Good verdict.
Moreover, while in the past He had judged one Day at a time, at the end of the Sixth Day He would judge “everything that He had done,” namely the whole Six Floors BUILDING, or the entire CREATION! .
Since Adam is the only new creature added between the two judgments, it is Adam who could make the difference – elevate the verdict from good to ‘very Good.’
What would happen if Adam fails? Moses poses two possible outcomes for the End of the Sixth Day’s trial.
If Adam would be deemed Very Good, GOD (ELKM) would ‘finish’ or end his work, ‘abstain’ from more work and enter the Sabbath (‘shabat’ means abstained)
If Adam would not be deemed Very Good, if Adam fails, GOD (ELKM) would “finish” – terminate- the entire BUILDING with wrath.
Tradition says that this bad outcome had already happened before. GOD (ELKM) had finished – terminated- other numerous Universes before ours. .
Here are the verses. At the End the Sixth Day it says –
And there was evening and there was morning the Sixth Day (was over)
………………………………………….The Sabbath enters ……………………………………..
And the Heavens and the Earth and all their hosts were finished
And GOD (ELKM) finished on the Seventh Day all the work that He had done
And He abstained on the Seventh Day from all the work that He had done
Here the Hebrew word for “finished” – khalah- can be read either simply ‘ended His work.’ This would be a very good verdict. GOD (ELKM) would enter the Sabbath.
But you can read “finished” – khala- as ‘terminated in wrath,’ a bad outcome. In English too one would say “I will finish you!” as a threat.
GOD (ELKM) would not enter His Sabbath unless He is Very Pleased with Adam.
But the question was: Would Adam meet such high, noble expectations? Could Adam, equipped with a strong Free Will and Ego, driven by such strong Drives,win his trial and be deemed Very Good in GOD (ELKM) eyes? After all, GOD (ELKM) judges by the Absolute Justice, paying retributions “measure for measure.” Who would withstand such a harsh judgment for long time and win?
It is said that GOD (ELKM) realized that. Only a change in the Heavenly Court would make the difference and allow Adam to win. .
GOD (ELKM) Consulting the LORD (YHVH)
And made Adam
GOD (ELKM) then turned to another Attribute of the One, Nameless CREATOR, the Attribute of MERCY, COMPASSION AND FORGIVENESS, whose Name is The LORD (Y*H*V*H) and said to “Her”
Let us make Adam in our Image and our Form
We refer to YHVH in a female gender because in Hebrew, MERCY – rakhamim- is derived from rakham, womb. Indeed, who could feel mercy and compassion more than the mammal mother?
You see the LORD name the first time in the open in the Verse following after the Sabbath, as it says g
“And the LORD GOD (YHVH ELKM) formed the Adam from he dust of the ground” (Genesis 2)
In this verse, the two Attributes appear Side by Side to create Adam. They would never appear again so close to each other throughout the rest of the Bible.
Thus GOD (ELKM) – still standing in the Sixth Day – turned forwards and invited the LORD (YHVH) to become a PARTNER (rashi) in creating Adam. (The full story of this consultation is beyond the parameters of this class).
Indeed, the Merciful LORD (YHVH) joined the Attribute of Judgment GOD (ELKM) and together, “Wing touching Wing,” like two Cherubs in Love, they formed Adam in “their” Oneness.
Adam is therefore the only creature on Earth made by the two Attributes. Adam is therefore capable of comprehending and exercising Mercy, Compassion and Forgiveness- besides following GOD (ELKM) Laws.
All other creatures, smart as they might become, would never, never comprehend Mercy, Compassion and FORGIVENESS. They would be able to comprehend “measure for measure,” though. No other but Adam CAN be deemed Very Good in GOD (EKM) eyes.
It comes out that Adam can be “very good” because he can do what OD (ELKM) would never do – act in Mercy.
By adding the LORD (YHVH) to the Heavenly Court, GOD (ELKM) has increased Adam’s chances to win. You can see that as another concession by GOD (ELKM) towards Adam.
The first concession was when GOD (ELKM) descended from his High Pedestal as a Supreme JUDGE – a sole Dictator- and became a KING Who Consults. By this, GOD (ELKM) became more open to Adam’s pleas and petitions. .
The second concession that GOD (ELKM) made towards Adam was when the KING invited the Attribute of MERCY – YHVH- to participate in the Court. Henceforth the JUDGE would accept the input of MERCY, COMPASSION and FORGIVENESS to sweeten our verdict. The Court would accept our confessions and repentance,something unheard of under the old rule of GOD ELKM) “awesomely alone.”
Kabbala teaches that the Third concession towards Adam would happen in the Sabbath – to Come, a Day when GOD (ELKM) would finish His work, abstain from more work and relinquish the rule to the LORD Alone. This would be a Day of unconditional Love, Joy and holiness.
The human court should emulate GOD (ELKM) .
A human judge should also attempt – first of all – to find out the truth, and nothing but the truth. The judge would then decide a just verdict as the law requires. Only then the human judge should exercise mercy and compassion and sweeten the verdict- as the case deserves. .
In summary- according to Moses, what makes Adam different and so unique from all other creatures is not our smart mind but rather our heart that is capable of feeling Mercy, Compassion and Forgiveness.