© 2019 by Rabbi Zvi Aviner
Genesis Vs Evolution
Class 4: Adam
Rabbi Dr, Zvi Aviner, 2019
Now that we’ve established Moses’ credibility about the history of the World, is he also credible about the history of Man?
1: The Scientific Narrative of the Evolution of Man
Science says (according to the History Chanel) that Man appeared on Earth gradually over the last 2 Million years. The growth of Mammals actually began 75 Million years ago, following the meteoric catastrophe that wiped out all the giant creatures of Pangea , including the Dinosaurs. As devastating as the catastrophe was, it changed the climate in our favor. Small creatures like Mammals could now proliferate and evolve faster than before. First came Large Apes, then Primitive Man like Homo Erectus and Homo Neanderthal (0.7-0.4 Billion years ago) than Homo Sapience, “Wise Man,” (about 0.4 B years ago.)
Why Mammals? What gave mammals the advantage to grow more than other creatures? The scientists debate on that. Some say that the Mammals’ ability to stand upright and free their hands gave them the advantage. Others credit some mysterious chemical in the mother’s milk.. After all, MILK is what distinguishes Mammals by definition. Others say that the protection that mammals give to their offspring is what has promoted their growth. Whereas Crocodiles eat their babies to prevent competition, mammal nourish their babies, to promote their proliferation.
As Man evolved, Science says, so did his Brain. Our mind after all is what makes us Homo Sapience, Wise Man. Our mind endows us with abstract thinking, language, imagination and fascination. You can see this fascinations in the way Cave Man painted his hunting scenes on the Cave’s walls. Our mind allows us to invent tools,and comprehend the way the Universe works.
But Science believes that our mind does not set us essentially apart from other creatures. We simply won the race. Following the demise of the Dinosaurs, Science says, a race began between several social creatures – like ants, spiders and bees- to develop a smart society. It is as if the Universe “demands the presence of an intelligent creature in it.” Given more time, like several more million years, other social creatures might catch up and develop their own ideas, I-Phones, computers and Space Ships. Man’s growth has been simply promoted by the climate change in our favor. But other creatures could be as smart as we are, given enough time.
Modern scientists wonder, however, how is it possible for Man to have a mind that grasps the way the Universe works; How can we set up mathematical equations that describe so well the natural laws?
But Science points also on our Self Consciousnesses and our Individuality as contributors to our advantage. Our Art and Music and emotional world enriches our lives. Man is blessed with a strong Sex Drive that propels him forwards (says Sigmund Freud.) Other psychologists see our Drive for Power as a major force to create a civilization (Carl Jung). .
Man is at the apex of Evolution, science says. The evidenced for that is seen in every human embryo developing in his mother’s womb. We all start in a single cell and grow into a multi-cellular organism. On the way we pass through the entire evolution, the embryo resembling Fish, Bird, Lizard and so on (“Onto-Genesis repeats the Philo-Genesis.”)
Now, having summarized in short what Science says about Man and his talents, let’s see what Moses says about it. Could we match Moses with Science about Man?
MOSES’ ACCOUNT OF ADAM’S CREATION
In comparison with the Scientific account
1: The text in Genesis about creating Adam
AS THE SIXTH DAY DAWNED
”And GOD (ELKIM) said Let the Earth bring forth living creatures to their kinds
Cattle, Creeping things and Beasts of the Earth to their kinds, and it was so
THE MIDDAY JUDGMENT OF THE SIXTH DAY: And GOD (ELKM) saw that it was good.
ANNOUNCING THE PLAN TO CREATE ADAM
“And GOD (ELKM) said: LET US MAKE AN ADAM IN OUR FORM AND OUR IMAGE
“And GOD (ELKM) created The Adam in His Image, in the Image of GOD (ELKM) He created him, male and female He created them.
And GOD (ELKM) blessed them and said to them
Be fruitful and multiply, filled the Earth and conquer it, rule over the Fish…Birds…and all the Beasts…
THE SIXTH DAY’S FINAL JUDGMENT
And GOD (ELKM) saw EVERYTHING that HE had DONE
And behold, it was VERY GOOD
And there was evening, and there was morning, the SIXTH DAY” (was over.)
…………………THE SABBATH DAY BEGINS………………………..
“And the Heavens and the Earth were FINISHED
And GOD (ELKM) FINISHED all the Work that He has done,
And He ABSTAINED on the SEVENTH DAY from all the work that He had done
And GOD (ELKM) blessed the Seventh Day and He sanctified it….
For in it He ABSTAINED from all His work that GOD (ELKM) had created, to do.” (Genesis 1-31; 2 1-3)
On the surface, Moses’ Genesis differs from the Scientific story. The world, he seems to be saying, was created only 5000 years ago and in just one week. Science, in contrast, says that the Universe is 13.7 Billion years old.
But the truth is that Moses does not mention 5000 years. This number is projected backwards by calculating the generations between Noah and Cain and Able. This calculation should stop when it reaches Chapters 1 -3, with the story of Genesis and the Garden of Eden.
Indeed, we’ve already learned that Kabbala sees the Universe as a Six Floors BUILDING, close to 13 Billion years old- not too far from what Science says. Each Day of CREATION, each Floor of the BUILDING did last Billions of years.
Man, according to this narrative, is the last tenant placed in that BUILDING, in the Sixth Floor, with millions of years behind him and millions of years ahead of him . In other words – Man is the last creature in the Universe before it moves to the next Stage of CREATION, the Seventh Day, or the “Eternal Sabbath To Come”.
The Eternal Sabbath, accordingly, is not just another Floor on top of the Six, but rather a new realty which will wrap the entire BUILDING. When the Sabbath of CREATION arrives, GOD (ELKM) will “Finish” His Work as a BUILDER,” Finish” His Judgment as a JUDGE, “Abstain” from doing more work or more Judgment. (The word Shabbat means “abstained”.) When the Eternal Sabbath arrives, a new Holiness will descend on the Universe and change the way it works.
Note again that our human, weekly Sabbath is given to us only to commemorate the “Eternal Sabbath Of The World To Come,” the next Stage of CREATION
Now, when exactly was the decision made to make Adam?
Science says that Mammals proliferated soon after the Dinosaurs’ demise. The climate changed in their favor. Man evolved as the result. Moses too says that the decision to bring Adam on Earth was done by the Heavenly Court – right after the “midday Judgment” of the Sixth Day. At that judgement, GOD (ELKM) eliminated everything “not good” that He had created earlier on that Day. The Dinosaurs and the other giant creatures were eliminated. Those who could support the rest of the Day and live side by side with the new creature-Adam- were allowed to adapt and stay alive. The Mammals were chosen to stay alive and grow. Why Mammals and not other social creatures? What is so special about mammals? We’ll soon see.
nd as we recall, GOD (ELKM) judgment is harsh yet just, following the rule of “measure for measure.” Those creatures He deems “not good anymore” were eliminated with no Mercy. They have accomplished their task and therefore not needed anymore. GOD (ELKM) as a BUILDER ,gives life and take life away as He deems necessary. The creatures He deemed good and viable and capable to support the rest of the |Sixth Day He allowed to live on- side by side with the new creature, Adam. The Dinosaurs were gone, but other creatures proliferated. and their kinds.
Then, after the Midday trial, GOD (ELKM) said
“Let Us Make an Adam in Our Form and Our Image.”
The term “Adam” here is generic for Mankind, rather than for an individual by that name. Instead of saying “Let there be an Adam,” He said “Let Us make an Adam,” announcing a PLAN. This new species, Adam, would occupy the rest of the Sixth Day, the rest of the Sixth Floor, as the entire Universe continues its way towards the Sabbath Era.
So GOD (ELKM) announced His Plan to bring Adam soon after the demise of the Dinosaurs and the other giant Crawling creatures. And like any Plan, this one could take many years to accomplish, Adam would appear gradually on Earth, by staged. By this alone Moses concurs well with Science. We, knowing history, CAN relate the plan to the gradual appearance of Primitive Men: Homo Erectus, Homo Neanderthal and Homo Sapience.
Although in the story of Eden, LORD GOD” (YHVH ELKM) formed Adam from the “dust of the ground,” as one-time event, yet Eden and the Primordial Sin should be studied in due course. In fact the Story of Eden happened in the THIRD Day, before there was any grass or tree on Earth, not even rain. It took place in a virtual world of Yezirah, Forming.
In fact, when GOD (ELKM) said “Let us Make an Adam in Our Form and Our Image“- to what Form and Image was he referring? He has none! But the customary teaching here (see rashi) is that GOD (ELKM) had on His Mind an “image and form” of an ideal Adam, a Very Good Adam, which Adam should become. Adam, accordingly, was born to grow- spiritually and phisically.
The Plan does also tells us how did GOD (ELKM) create Adam to be Very Good one. The rabbis said (Midrash) that when GOD(ELKM) said in plural : “Let Us Make an Adam in Our Form and Our Image, ” He spoke to “whoever was present in the room” or “whoever was listening” or “whoever is mentioned in the Chapter” either before or after the making of Adam. They would ALL participate in the making Adam. Each “consultant” would contribute a layer in Adam’s body and soul.
Who exactly is mentioned in the Chapter? Here is the list:
1. The Six Days
2. The Head of the events (The Beginning)
3. The Spirit of ELKM
4. Self-Consciousness and Free Will
5. The Drive to Multiply and Procreate
6. The Drive to Rule Over
They are all mentioned in the Chapter, either before or after mentioning Adam. They all gathered around GOD (ELKM)- the BUILDER – as He announced His decision to make Adam collectively, “In Our Form and Our Image.”
GOD (ELKM) then built a “dummy of Adam” in the ground (Talmud). Remember, the “consultations” began soon after the Midday Judgment of the Sixth Day, after the demise of the Dinosaurs and their kinds. To each one of he councilors He said: : “Let us, me and you, make Adam in our Form and our Image.”
He then went on to “consult” each councilor the same way a BUILDER would consult his Master Plan, and made a layer in Adam accordingly. This way He built Adam layer by layer, each “consultation” contributing a layer in Adam’s body and mind.
Now let’s see how Adam is built according to Moses. Does he match our Scientific knowledge about Man? . .
1. GOD (ELKM) Consulted the Six Days
and made a layer in Adam
To build Adam, GOD (ELKM) summoned the Six Days of CREATION mentioned before in the Chapter. To each Day He said-
““Let Us Make an Adam in Our Form and Our Image.”
He consulted the First Day and made Adam. Hence Adam is made of stuff that stars are made of.
He Consulted the Second Day with its Waters Above and Water Below, and made another layer in Adam accordingly. No wonder that our body comprises mostly of waters.
He Consulted the Third Day with its Vegetation, and made another layer in Adam, accordingly. You see that in the way our blood vessels brunch, and our eyes use a sort of photosynthesis to see.
He Consulted the Fourth Day and it Luminaries, and made another layer in Adam. Since then our body harbors sensitive biologic clocks, and our nervous system can switch from alertness to sleep.
He Consulted the Fifth Day with its Fish, Birds and Crocodiles, and made other layers in Adam. You see this in every human embryo developing in his mother’s uterus.
He Consulted the Sixth Day with its Cattle, Beasts and the Crawling creatures, and made other layers in Adam. You can still see this in our biology.
Adam is therefore made of everything created before him. The fingerprints of this is still seen in the way a human embryo develops in the womb. we all begin in one cell and end up as a whole creature, the summary of the Evolution. For sure, Moses concurs here in full with what Science says.
Moses is interested in telling us that Man is an integral part of Nature. We are not alien here. Man can identify with Nature around him and he is a legitimate ruler over it – since a ruler must come from among his future subjects! t. . .
2. GOD ( ELKM) consulted His Wisdom
and made another layer in Adam
“At the Head of the Events, (At the Beginning) GOD (ELKM) created the Heavens and the Earth.” (Genesis 1:1)
Next, GOD (ELKM) consulted another councilor mentioned in the Chapter. Looking “back” into the chapter, He consulted “The Beginning” or “The Head of the events” or “the Wisdom in His Head” by which He had created the world (Talmud.) He summoned His Wisdom and said to it: “Let Us, me and you, make an Adam in Our Form and Our Image”.
He then “Consulted” His Wisdom the way a BUILDER consults his plan, and planted an intelligent mind in Adam. Adam is therefore a” Homo Sapience”, a Wise Man. No wonder that Adam can decipher all the mysteries of Nature. .
Here again Moses concurs with Science that Man is a Homo Sapience. For Science this is the most important feature of Adam. . But Moses says that (GOD) ELKM wasn’t satisfied yet. He therefore continued to consult. With whom?
3. He Consulted with the “Spirit of ELKM”
Next, GOD (ELKM) turned to another entity mentioned earlier in the chapter- namely “and the Spirit of ELKM hovered over the water.” He turned to His Spirit and made another layer in Adam.
What is exactly “the Spirit of ELKM?” Moses defines it when he spoke about the building of the Tabernacle in the wilderness. There it is said that the builders was blessed with “the Spirit of ELKM: Wisdom ,Comprehension and Knowledge” to do all the craft needed to build the Tabernacles in gold, silver and grass (Exodus 35:31) 0
Thus the “Spirit of ELKM” i refers to all sorts of art, to anything that is exciting and beautiful in the world. GOD (ELKM) consulted the ability to do and appreciate and be fascinated by Art and made it a layer in Adam. This, in addition to the Six Days and the Wisdom in CREATION.
For some, this is as high as Man can be. But GOD (ELKM) wasn’t satisfied yet. He continued to consul with other entities mentioned in the chapter. with who else did He consult? . .
4. GOD (ELKM) consulted His Self Consciousness and Free Will
and made another layer in Adam
By saying Let Us, the verse infers that there exists a Self- men and you, he and she. It is not an illusion as some religions say
So after consulting His Spirit and planting Art in Adam, GOD (ELKM) consulted His SELF and said to it :
“Let Us, me and you, make an Adam in our Form and Our Image.”
He then “consulted” His “Self” like a BUILDER consulting his Plan, and made a layer in Adam accordingly. Adam is therefore blessed with a powerful self-Consciousness, Free Will and a strong, individual Ego.
So strong is Adam’s ego that it might take him astray It may make Adam extremely arrogant.
Tradition says that GOD (ELKM) wished to teach Adam how to curtail his arrogance.
When GOD (ELKM) created Adam, the rabbis said, He turned to His own Angels and said-
“Let us make an Adam..”
“Our KING, ” the surprised Angels asked, “why are you consulting us? Arn’t we your faithful messengers who perform your wish with no discretion?”
“I consult you nevertheless,” GOD (ELKM) said, “to teach Adam modesty, that the superior would consult the inferior before making a decision.” :
So the Angels continued: “Our KING, aren’t you afraid that by speaking in plural, you’ve opened the doors for idolaters to think there is more than One CREATOR? Have you not opened the door for IDOLATRY?”
And GOD (ELKM) answered: ”I take the risk, for teaching Adam modesty is paramount!”
And the Angels derived that the most powerful idol in Adam life would be his own ego.
Having these many consultations you would think that this was enough. But GOD (ELKM) continued to consult. With whom? .
5. 6 GOD (ELKM) consulted the Drive to” Procreate and Rule Over”
and made another layer in Adam
Next GOD (ELKM) turned to items mentioned in the Chapter ahead of Adam as it says –
And GOD (ELKM) said:
LET US MAKE AN ADAM IN OUR FORM AND OUR IMAGE
And ELKM created The Adam in His Image, in the Image of ELKM He created him,
male and female He created them. And ELKM blessed them and said to them
Be fruitful and multiply, filled the Earth and conquer it,
and rule over the Fish…Birds…and all the Beasts…”
The verse mentions two blessing ahead of Adam: (1) Be fruitful and multiply (2) Rule over
First, GOD (ELKM) turned to “Be fruitful and multiply” – namely the Drive to procreate, the Sex Drive, and said to it:
“Let Us, me and you, make an Adam in Our Form and Our Image.”
He consulted the Sex Drive like a BUILDER consulting his plan, and made it a layer in Adam. Moreover, He “Blessed” Adam with it, making the Sex Drive stronger in Adam than in other creatures. . Adam would be driven forwards by a perpetual Sex Drive that is independent on seasons. Prof. Sigmund Freud was right- the Sex Drive is our major propellor. . .
Next, GOD (ELKM) turned to the Drive to Rule Over and said to it:
“Let us, me and you, make an Adam in our Form and our Image.”
He then “consulted” the Drive to Rule Over and made it another layer in Adam. He even Blessed Adam with it, making it stronger m than in any other creature in Nature. The Drive for Power would dominate our lives and push us forwards to create things and leave a legacy more than any other Drive, as Prof. Carl Jung agrees.
Note that in Nature too, these two Drives- the Sex Drive and the Drive for Power – are intertwined. You see that in the way males compete for the females
You may ask: which of the two Drives is more powerful? Since Moses places the “Drive for Power” ahead of the “Sex Drive”, it means that in his opinion the former is stronger. After all, you’d place the strongest horse ahead of the wagon. .
So far, Moses concurs in full with Science about Man. Who told him the story? Who gave him the insight?
But Moses now adds something about Adam that Science would never say. What is it?